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Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD)

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal-recessive genetic disease charactersed by recurrent infections of the respiratory tract as well as reduced male fertility.


Around 50% of the affected dogs develop situs inversus (Kartagener syndrome). The underlying cause is a motility defect in the respiratory cilia responsible for airway clearance and in the flagella responsible for propelling sperm cells.

Symptoms include chronic inflammation of upper and lower airways, coughing, nasal discharge, wheezing, bronchopneumonia and inflammation of the ear.

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